Focus on Configuration Management Debt First

It has been a few years since Managing Software Debt was published and I think about how it could have been better on a regular basis. I think the content was useful to put in a book and aligns with current movements such as DevOps, Microservices, Continuous Delivery, Lean and Agile. On the other hand, there may have been a tendency by me to focus on Technical Debt at the beginning of the book that was not warranted in terms of importance for managing software debt. It has been my experience that managing technical debt, the activities that a team or team members choose not to do well now and will impede future development if left undone, is less important than the other four types of software debt. In fact, here are the priorities that I typically used with companies to help them manage software debt more effectively:

  1. Configuration Management Debt: Integration and release management become more risky, complex, and error-prone.
  2. Platform Experience Debt: The availability of people to work on software changes is becoming limited or cost-prohibitive.
  3. Design Debt: The cost of adding features is increasing toward the point where it is more than the cost of writing from scratch.
  4. Quality Debt: There is a diminishing ability to verify the functional and technical quality of software.

Along the way, I might work with teams on processes and techniques that can help with reducing technical debt but that was to get them ready to take advantage of the efficiencies that result from the other four. I wonder if the popularity of the topic “technical debt” and my background as a developer lead me to focus chapters 2 through 4 on managing technical debt. No matter what the reasoning, I think it is good to discuss the reasons for demoting it in priority with regards to managing software debt on your team and in your organizations.

Why Configuration Management Debt First?

The value of software is only potential value until it is put into a user’s hands. There can be many roadblocks to software getting into user’s hands in an organization’s processes:

  • Proliferation of long-lived branches
  • Over burdened release engineering and operations teams
  • Poor integration processes across architecture components and scaled team delivery
  • High coupling with centrally managed architecture element/component
  • Too many variations/versions of the software supported in production
  • Code changes feel too risky and takes too long to validate before releasing into production
  • Poor documentation practices
  • Too many hand-offs between teams in order to release software to users

Just as the tag line of the chapter 6 “Configuration Management Debt” says:

If releases are like giving birth, then you must be doing something wrong.
— Robert Benefield

In organizations that have effective configuration management practices it is common to see deployment pipelines that have a smaller number of hand-offs between teams, architectures that tend to be more malleable, and efficient validation processes. What is interesting about the list that I just wrote in the previous sentence is that they align with managing three other types of software debt more effectively:

  • Smaller number of hand-offs: Platform Experience Debt
  • Malleable architectures: Design Debt
  • Efficient validation processes: Quality Debt

What I have found is that by focusing on Configuration Management Debt it is simpler to identify aspects of the integration and release management process that need to be tackled in order to get working software in the hands of users sooner while reducing the bottlenecks in the organizational processes and practices therefore leading to further optimizations in the future.

Alignment with Today’s Industry Conversations

It is interesting to note that this focus aligns well with the tenets of the DevOps movement luminaries. Going towards Feature Teams organizational configurations that have people with all of the capabilities to design, implement, validate, integrate, configure, deploy and maintain reduces hand-offs and increases quality because the team that builds the software maintains it, as well. Its amazing how quality goes up when a team member on rotation has to respond to production issues in the middle of the night.

Not only does this align with the DevOps but malleable architectures tends to align with the Microservices movement. Given Feature Teams we can take advantage of Conway’s Law, rather than be a victim of it, to align team delivery with providing a specific capability in the architecture. Since these capabilities are more specific the implementation tends to be smaller and therefore easier to change later. Now there are still operational issues to overcome in order to make this an efficient approach. Platforms such as Cloud Foundry that provide application runtimes and access to services with low operational overhead will make Microservices based architectures even more approachable and efficient to attain.

The Agile movement has already encouraged significant changes in how we validate software. Continuous Delivery has continued to push the validation efficiencies forward. As more teams become aware and more effective with test frameworks, tools, platforms and SaaS offerings we will continue to see more efficient validation processes in our delivery pipelines.

There is a great book by Jez Humble, Lean Enterprise: How High Performance Organizations Innovate at Scale, that I recommend if you want to explore the topics above further. Let me know in the comments section if you have any additional or different thoughts around focusing on configuration management debt first. I’m always interested in learning from others tackling difficult problems and the approaches that they see working.

Managing Configuration Management Debt


In my book “Managing Software Debt: Building for Inevitable Change”, chapter 6 discusses Configuration Management Debt and approaches to help keep this type of debt to a minimum. Since I originally wrote this chapter a lot has gone on in the software development and operations communities. There has been a couple of huge uprisings: Continuous Delivery and DevOps. Of course, the ideas expressed as part of these movements are not necessarily new but rather standing on proverbial shoulders of giants.

Managing Configuration Management Debt

When I wrote in this chapter is only a small portion of ideas that are being feverishly adopted across our industry. It is exciting to see just how fast truly Lean approaches such as DevOps are motivating teams, enhancing customer experiences, and driving business results. Application of DevOps and Continuous Delivery are quickly maturing and seem to be a stronger force than even the Manifesto for Agile Software Development.

I would like to review the 3 areas that organizations can work on to improve their Configuration Management performance to put some perspective on how these hold up 5 or so years later:

  • Transfer some Configuration Management responsibilities to the teams
  • Increase automated feedback
  • Track issues in a collaborative manner

Transfer Responsibilities to Teams

Release Engineering teams tend to get overburdened as time goes by. They tend to be centralized and support more teams than they have people. The DevOps movement has put a spotlight onto this problem and provided cultural, process, and technical approaches for reducing the risk of overburdening Release Engineering teams. Taking a DevOps approach implies moving some responsibilities for configuration management to the team.

Increase Automated Feedback

To reduce the impact of increasing the team’s platform complexity by adding these responsibilities, organizations must invest in increasing automation and developer user experience of automation tools. The other aspect of transferring responsibilities to teams from the book was automating Install and Rollback procedures. Going beyond Continuous Integration towards the fully automated build, test deployment and monitoring approaches contained in Continuous Delivery encompasses this idea. There has been a tremendous amount of innovation that makes Continuous Delivery more approachable including the growth of Cloud Computing adoption to Chef & Puppet to automate infrastructure to the promise of Platform as a Service (PaaS).

Track Issues Collaboratively

Automated build pipelines and teams that have more responsibility for software operations leads us to ask about who tracks issues. Again, the DevOps movement has pushed our organizations to think about the responsibility for production deployments. The more teams can take responsibility, given appropriate automation and developer user experience with the tools, the more responsive they will be to customer issues and operational changes needed around their software. It is my contention that the more responsibility teams have for production operations the better production will operate.


In review, I probably write enough on Configuration Management Debt. In my consulting and product development activities since the book I have realized that focusing on Configuration Management Debt first makes steps to address the other four types of software debt (technical, quality, design, and platform experience) easier to see. The build pipeline(s) and the spread of responsibilities can tell teams a lot about where they can find optimizations.